The gate to know Budapest & Hungary
GENERAL INFOS ABOUT HUNGARY
Hungary in facts
| The Republic of Hungary |
Hungary is an independent state, parliamentary republic; it was Mr Mátyás Szűrös, who declared the 3rd Hungarian Republic, on October 23 1989, and became an interim president.
President of the Republic: Mr. ÁDER János ( from May 12th 2012 )
Prime Minister: Mr. ORBÁN Viktor ( from May 2010 )
Unicameral Parliament: 199 deputees, elected for 4 years ( actual parliamentary period is: April 2014-Spring 2018 )
Hungary is a member of:
- United Nations since 1955
- European Committee since 1990
- Visegrád Group since 1991
- NATO since 1999
- European Union since May 01, 2004
| Hungarian National Anthems |
The Hungarian nation has several national anthems.
The official anthem is the Himnusz of Kölcsey Ferenc, but the Szózat of Vörösmarty Mihály is also considered as an anthem, we use both of them on national holiday events.
The Székely Himnusz ( Szekler Hymn ) symbolizes the unity of the Hungarian Nation, although we were been tragically quarted with Trianon treaty in 1920.
The Nemzeti Dal ( National Song ) of Pet?fi Sándor express how much is important for us, Hungarians, the Liberty and the Faith.
Concerning the song " Hazám, hazám ", this is the hymn, the confession of the Hungarian heart, about patriotism ( performed by our great singer, Simándy József ).
(1) Kölcsey Ferenc: Himnusz ( Hymn )
Isten, áldd meg a magyart
Jó kedvvel, bõséggel,
Nyújts feléje védõ kart,
Ha küzd ellenséggel;
Bal sors akit régen tép,
Hozz rá víg esztendõt,
Megbünhödte már e nép
A múltat s jövendõt!
( Please click on the flag to see the whole text of Hungarian Hymn and listen it on YouTube video )
= = = = = = = = = =
(2) Vörösmarty Mihály: Szózat
Légy híve, oh magyar;
Bölcs?d az s majdan sírod is,
Mely ápol s eltakar.
A nagy világon e kiv?l
Nincsen számodra hely;
Áldjon vagy verjen sors keze:
Itt élned, halnod kell.
( Please click on the national coat of arms with angels to see the whole text of Szózat and listen it on YouTube video )
= = = = = = = = = =
(3) Székely Himnusz ( Szekler Hymn )
Ki tudja merre, merre visz a végzet
Göröngyös úton, sötét éjjelen
Vezesd még egyszer gy?zelemre néped
Csaba királyfi csillag ösvényén.
Maroknyi székely porlik, mint a szikla
Népek harcának zajló tengerén
Fejünk az ár, jaj, százszor elborítja
Ne hagyd elveszni Erdélyt, Istenünk!
( Please click on szekler photo to see the whole text of Székely Himnusz and listen it on YouTube video )
| Symbols of the Hungarian Nation |
The current coat of arms of Hungary was adopted in July 1990, by the first "free" elected parliament.
The arms have been used before, both with and without the Crown of Saint Stephen, sometimes as part of a larger, more complex coat of arms, and many of its elements date back to the Middle Ages.
It is usually said that the silver stripes represent four rivers ( Duna, Tisza, Dráva, Száva) and the hills represent three mountain ranges ( Mátra, Tátra, Fátra).
= = = = =
The Crown of Saint Stephen ( Hungarian: Magyar Szent Korona, Croatian: Kruna svetoga Stjepana, Latin:Sacra Corona), also known as the Sacred Crown of Hungary, was used to crown Hungarian kings from the 13th century onward. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (sometimes the Sacra Corona meant the Land, the Carpathian Basin, but it also meant the coronation body, too). No king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the History of Hungary, 55 kings were coronated with it (only two kings were not coronated Sigismund Johann II, and Joseph II of Hapsburgs).
The Kingdom of Hungary was special in the sense that the Sacred Crown was on the top of all hierarchy, not dependant from Pope, and above the king itself, the king had to serve the crown. The coronation body had chosen the king for the crown, and not a crown for a king.
The crowning of István, the first Christian king of Hungary who was later canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood. The date is variously given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001. In year 1038 King Stephen I died without a direct heir after the tragic early death of his only son, Saint Prince Imre. On his deathbed the elderly king committed his country into the graces of the Virgin Mary, declaring her Patrona Hungariae (Patroness of Hungary).
= = = = =
Turul is the mythological bird of the origin myth of the Magyars (Hungarian people).
The Turul is a large falcon, and the origin of the word is most likely Turkish (togrul or turgul means peregrine falcon). In Hungarian the word sólyom means falcon, and there are three ancient words describing different kinds of falcons: kerecsen (saker), zongor (lives in the male name Zsombor) and turul.
| Counties and Regions of Hungary |
Hungary is subdivided total in 20 separated administrative zones: 19 counties and Budapest, the capital, as an autonomous region ( see the map of counties, joint here ). These counties are further subdivided into 167 subregions. Budapest, the capital city is independent of any county government. There are 23 towns with county rights. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units.
Hungary actually has 19 counties. Please have a look at the map joint here. In 1920, with the Treaty of Trianon the Entente Powers took 45 counties of the total 64 counties of the nearly 1000-year old Hungarian Kingdom and distributed them in 4 neigbouring countries.
Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into 7 regions for statistical and development purposes. These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary. These are: Northern Hungary ( its center is: Miskolc ), Northern Great Plain ( Debrecen ), Southern Great Plain ( Szeged ), Central Hungary ( Budapest ), Central Transdanubia ( Székesfehérvár ), Western Transdanubia ( Gy?r ) and Southern Transdanubia ( Pécs ).
| Population of Hungary |
On July 1st 2007, Hungary had 298 towns and 2854 villages. In these 3152 localities lives approx 10.065.000 inhabitants. With this number of population Hungary is the 13th in Europe. The density is 109 pers/skm. Nearly 25% of the total population lives in Budapest and its agglomeration area.
The number of inhabitants are in the regional centers: Budapest - 1.800.000 ( 2.600.000 with its agglomeration zone ), Debrecen - 205.000, Miskolc - 179.000 ( 270.000 with agglomeration zone ), Szeged - 163.000, Pécs - 157.000, Gy?r - 128.000, Székesfehérvár - 102.000.
Population growth rate: - 0,25% ( est. ).
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.66 years
male: 68.45 years
female: 77.14 years
The ethnic composition of the population: 90% Hungarian, 5,8% Roma ( gipsy ), 1,2% German and 3% Others ( Slovak, Romanian, Chinese, South Slavs and Others ).
| Religion in Hungary |
Hungary is a more than 1000 year Christian state. Stephen I ( Vajk ), the first Hungarian king is the direct descendant of Duke Árpád, leader of Hungarian Tributes. Stephen I. took up the Western Christianity. He received the Crown and the apostolic cross from Pope Sylvester II in 1000. As a Christian king, he established the Hungarian Church with ten dioceses.
The largest religions in Hungary are ( estimated, on the religious population ): Roman Catholic ( 57% ), Calvinist ( 17% ), Lutheran ( 4% ), Greek Catholic ( 3% ), Jewish ( 0,5% ), Orthodox ( 0,3% ), other religions together ( 1% ).
The center of the Roman Catholic Religion is at Esztergom; this is here we can found the greatest Basilica of the country.
The center of the Calvinism is located on the Eastern part of Hungary, in Debrecen, which is often called " the Calvinist Vatican". The unique yellow building of the Great Church ( Nagytemplom ) of Debrecen is one of the well-known symbols of not only this city, but also of whole Hungary.
Altough the number of Jewish religious people is small, the Synagogue of Budapest ( Dohany Synagogue ), with its nearly 3000 seats, is one of the greatest in the World.
There are a great number of famous pilgrimage places in Hungary, where we can organize nice pilgrimage tours.